Grouper is one of Florida's most valuable commercial fisheries. In 2009 over 6.7 million pounds were landed in the state with an estimated dockside value of close to $18 million. Because of its economic value, popularity among consumers, and limited supply, however, grouper has also been the target of species substitution and mislabeling by some wholesalers, restaurants, and retailers in recent years. Often the substituted product is a lesser-valued fish imported from other countries. Species substitution and mislabeling is illegal! While the perpetrators who sell the product might generate economic gains in the short-run, the fraudulent act can have long-term negative consequences for the industry as well as consumers.